Multics 428 pages
16 Mar 2015

Website Map

Home Page. Multics site home page 25K 12/14/14
Multics History. Narrative history of Multics. 98K 01/24/15
Features. Features of the system 81K 08/14/14
DPS 8M Instruction Set. Meaning of instruction set mnemonics 48K 10/27/12
6180 opcodes - normal. Operation Code Map (bit 27 = 0) 3K 11/08/12
6180 opcodes - EIS. Operation Code Map (bit 27 = 1) 2K 11/08/12
AL39 Multics Processor Manual. 1.5MB PDF 1505K 11/08/12
Myths. Incorrect statements about Multics found on the web. 69K 09/11/14
Project MAC. History of MIT Project MAC. 73K 12/14/14
Dates. List of Multics related events in time order. 54K 12/16/14
Glossary Index. Dictionary of Multics terms, concepts, and jargon. 93K 08/16/14
Glossary - A 97K 08/16/14
Glossary - B 44K 08/16/14
Glossary - C 79K 08/16/14
Glossary - D 60K 08/16/14
Glossary - E 44K 08/16/14
Glossary - F 41K 08/16/14
Glossary - G 23K 08/16/14
Glossary - H 24K 08/16/14
Glossary - I 49K 08/16/14
Glossary - J 15K 08/16/14
Glossary - K 19K 08/16/14
Glossary - L 41K 08/16/14
Glossary - M 74K 08/16/14
Glossary - N 27K 08/16/14
Glossary - O 20K 08/16/14
Glossary - P 86K 08/16/14
Glossary - Q 20K 08/16/14
Glossary - R 54K 08/16/14
Glossary - S 80K 08/16/14
Glossary - T 51K 08/16/14
Glossary - U 29K 08/16/14
Glossary - V 28K 08/16/14
Glossary - W 18K 08/16/14
Glossary - X 17K 08/16/14
Glossary - Y 12K 08/16/14
Glossary - Z 17K 08/16/14
The Multics History Project. Project to preserve historical artifacts about the Multics operating system. 16K 02/26/15
History Project Wish List. Material we'd like to find for the Multics History Project. 17K 10/27/12
Letter From Corby. On the occasion of the shutdown of the last Multics system. 12K 01/24/13
Multicians. List of contributors to Multics. 573K 02/21/15
Multicians Registration. Signup form 18K 09/24/12 Information on mail addresses in the domain. 21K 02/03/14
Stories. Anecdotes and war stories about Multics. 58K 04/25/14
Pictures of the MIT 6180. Publicity pictures from 1973 14K 04/29/13
GE-645 Circuit Board. Actual board from the BTL GE-645. 13K 09/01/14
It Can Be Done. Writing bug-free software. 14K 04/28/13
Shangri-La and the Paris 645. The 1970 "merger" and an early software factory. 16K 09/01/14
ST. JOHN'S HOSTS MULTICS. Honeywell internal newsletter from 1981. 7K 09/30/12
Origin of the Cookie Monster. A legendary Multics hack. 15K 07/21/14
Corby. Homage to our leader, Fernando J. Corbató 26K 09/01/14
The Spirit of Multics. Remark by Don Wagner. 11K 09/01/14
Installing the GE-645 in Paris. Story by Dave Vinograd. 17K 11/11/12
Teaching Multics in Tokyo. Story by Dave Vinograd. 18K 04/28/13
The Developer's Wail. Story by Dave Vinograd. 12K 09/01/14
MacLisp at ENWGS. Story by Robert Matern. 14K 09/01/14
Multics Humor at ENWGS. Jokes about ENWGS 17K 09/01/14
Organick's Book. How to order Organick's book from MIT Press 15K 09/01/14
Operational Statistics, 1969. Charts from the early days of Multics service at MIT. 13K 04/29/13
Honeywell Management. Inside story of Honeywell politics. 21K 09/01/14
Hodie Natus Est Radici Frater. A 1976 error message in Latin. 20K 09/01/14
How Many Users?. CTSS load and Multics performance in the 1960s. 14K 09/01/14
Summer 1977: I was a Multics Intern. Dream summer vacation in .. Phoenix. 8K 02/19/06
Project MAC 25th Anniversary. 1988 Project MAC reunion at MIT. 19K 08/14/14
Project MAC 35th Anniversary. 1999 Project MAC reunion 20K 09/01/14
CISL Farewell. Group photo of the CISL group taken in 1985. 14K 04/29/13
USGS-M Recollections. Using Multics in Menlo Park. 18K 06/10/12
Alan Sawyer's Multics Bio. Bell Canada applications conversion. 18K 09/08/11
Julie Jackson's Multics Bio. What Julie worked on. 18K 02/07/13
"You Had To Go To Radio Shack?". Demonstrating the Cray Station to Ford. 19K 09/01/14
Lee Scheffler's Multics Bio. What Lee worked on at Project MAC. 14K 09/01/14
Marketing Multics in the Midwest. Selling Multics in Iowa in a snowstorm. 14K 09/01/14
Short Operator. The true short operator story. 13K 03/14/11
The Magic Finger. Helping the University of Calgary tune its Multics. 15K 03/14/11
Low Bottle Pressure. Famous drum crashes in the 1960s. 20K 09/01/14
The 645 Chip. 1984 plan to put a 645 on a chip. 12K 03/13/11
Message Coordinator. Lessons from early development. 16K 09/01/14
Cryptic Messages from Antiquity. PL/I error messages remembered. 15K 03/13/11
Multics SNOBOL. Multics SNOBOL and the Missing END Statement. 15K 09/01/14
Multo ante natus eram. A date-related crash in 1995. 16K 09/01/14
INRIA Machine Room. The machine room at INRIA, Rocquencourt, France, in October 1991. 12K 04/30/13
Visiting Project MAC. Photo from Oda-san's 1973 visit to Cambridge. 11K 08/14/14
The Palyn Report. Marketing politics. 21K 09/01/14
Phase One. The first words of Multics. 20K 09/01/14
Picnics. Good times in the summer. 18K 09/01/14
An Obfuscated PL/I Program. Try to guess what this PL/I program does. 13K 09/01/14
Multics REDUCE. Symbolic algebra and particle physics by Rainer Schöpf. 15K 09/01/14
Multics Reunion and Dinner, June 2004. Events honoring Corby on 19 June 2004. 22K 02/10/15
2004 Multics Reunion Attendance 6K 11/08/12
Corbató Fellowship. Graduate Fellowship honoring Corby. 12K 04/29/13
2012 Multics Reunion . Informal gathering of Multicians in June 2012 17K 06/09/13
645 System: Artist's Conception. A painting of the future GE-645. 13K 04/29/13
Visiting CISL. Training the flying squad. 16K 09/01/14
Snow Joke. A message in the snow. 12K 09/01/14
Marketing Item. Teaching salesmen to consider Multics. 12K 09/01/14
Industrial Nucleonics and DCC. 1970s marketing successes. 13K 09/01/14
Marketing Successes. 1970s newsletter articles. 14K 09/01/14
Publicity Photos. More 1970s news articles. 13K 09/01/14
Honeywell User News. The first Multics sale in Europe and more. 12K 09/01/14
Installing USL. Crayfish and hurricanes. 13K 09/01/14
Flower. A never shipped Multics CPU. 15K 09/01/14
Using Ring 5. Protecting a source control database. 13K 09/01/14
Security. How the Air Force broke Multics security. 25K 09/01/14
The Origin of the Shell. RUNCOM and its progeny. 14K 09/01/14
Tech Square. Where we worked 26K 09/01/14
Telefunken TR440. Interesting German machine. 14K 09/01/14
Timing Channels. Covert channels and the star property. 18K 09/01/14
The Louisiana State Trooper Story. Another marketing legend. 15K 09/01/14
THVV Multics Bio. What Tom worked on. 28K 09/01/14
Unix and Multics. Our famous child. 20K 01/23/15
Benchmarks. Stories of benchmark tests done to sell Multics. 37K 09/16/14
The FJCC Papers. How the FJCC papers were written. 17K 06/22/13
The User Ring Newsletter. Newsletter for HLSUA Multics users, June 1986. 14K 03/19/14
Ring Zero and the Null Pointers. CNO Multicians who played rock and roll. 12K 05/09/14
Early days of Multics and Performance. Early days of Multics and rusty analysis on Performance Improvement. 23K 08/14/14
Project MAC 50th Anniversary. 2014 Project MAC and Multics reunion 32K 01/05/15
Project MAC Recollections. One graduate student's recollections. 25K 01/12/15
Multics Panel at ACSAC 30. Multics security Panel, December 2014 22K 01/13/15
Humor. Jokes about Multics. 35K 08/14/14
Memorabilia. Trinkets, T-shirts, and Ties. 31K 08/14/14
Bibliography. Papers, books, memos, and manuals related to Multics 390K 03/16/15
Papers Online. Classic papers about Multics available on the Web. 31K 07/07/14
Introduction and Overview of the Multics System. Classic 1965 paper introducing Multics 60K 08/14/14
System Design of a Computer for Time Sharing Applications. Classic 1965 paper introducing Multics 31K 06/04/10
Structure of the Multics Supervisor. Classic 1965 paper introducing Multics supervisor design 50K 06/04/10
A General-Purpose File System For Secondary Storage. Classic 1965 paper introducing Multics file system 74K 04/30/13
Communications and Input/Output Switching in a Multiplex Computing System. Classic 1965 paper introducing Multics I/O system 46K 04/30/13
Some Thoughts About the Social Implications of Accessible Computing. Classic 1965 paper introducing Multics 24K 11/20/05
A brief description of privacy measures in the Multics operating system. Brief 1967 technical paper describing security in the Multics operating system. AFIPS SJCC, 1967 9K 08/31/08
Protection in an information processing utility. 1968 description of Multics protection mechanism. 434K 11/08/12
Virtual memory, processes, and sharing in Multics. 1968 paper on processes, linkage, stack, call 39K 09/08/11
Some Considerations of Supervisor Program Design for Multiplexed Computer Systems. 1968 paper on OS design 71K 11/08/12
A Paging Experiment with the Multics System. 1969 paper on paging 1930K 11/08/12
The Multics Virtual Memory: Concepts and Design. 1969 paper on virtual memory 66K 04/29/13
The Role of Motherhood in the Pop Art of System Programming. 1969 paper on system programming 29K 07/17/10
The Multics PL/1 Compiler. 1969 paper on PL/I compiler implementation 58K 09/08/11
The Instrumentation of Multics. 1969 paper on Multics instrumentation 38K 02/18/14
Remote Terminal Character Stream Processing in Multics. 1970 paper on termimal I/O 93K 11/08/12
Technical and Human Engineering Problems in Connecting Terminals to a Time-Sharing System. 1970 paper on terminal I/O 829K 11/08/12
Some Observations about Decentralization of File Systems. 1971 paper on file system design 40K 11/08/12
A Hardware Architecture for Implementing Protection Rings. 1971 paper on rings 75K 09/08/11
The Multics Input/Output System. 1971 paper on I/O system 45K 09/08/11
Multics--The first seven years. 1972 78K 08/14/14
Footnotes for the paper Multics: The First Seven Years. Classic 1972 paper on Multics experience 7K 11/20/05
A simple linear model of demand paging performance. 1972 paper on working sets 338K 11/08/12
MOO in Multics. 1972 paper on games in Multics 180K 11/08/12
Protection and the Control of Information Sharing in Multics. 1974 paper on security 1703K 11/08/12
Ongoing Research and Development in Information Protection. 1974 paper on security 1540K 11/08/12
Automated Merging of Software Modifications. 1977 paper on merge_ascii 30K 04/30/13
A Managerial View of the Multics System Development. 1977 paper on Multics project experience 59K 08/14/14
The Multics MACLISP Compiler: The Basic Hackery -- a Tutorial. 1977 paper on LISP compiler 142K 02/18/14
footnotes for The Multics MACLISP Compiler: The Basic Hackery. Footnotes 18K 02/18/14
The Multics System Programming Process. 1978 paper on Multics process 23K 04/29/13
Multics Emacs: The History, Design and Implementation. 1979 Mother of All Emacs Papers 155K 02/18/14
Experiences With an Interactive Electronic Meeting Facility. 1983 paper on forum 27K 03/14/11
Multics Through the Looking Glass. 1980 HLSUA paper on tuning Calgary 66K 02/18/14
footnotes for Multics Through the Looking Glass. Footnotes 4K 09/24/12
Articles. Technical articles about Multics. 15K 02/10/15
B2 Security Evaluation. The history of Multics security features and the NCSC Orange Book security evaluation of Multics in the mid-80s. 102K 01/12/15
PL/I. The history of EPL, Version 1 and Version 2 PL/I, as well as related topics. 60K 04/29/13
TMG. The language used to build EPL. 23K 03/14/11
Version I PL/I Timeline. Development history of Multics Version 1 PL/I compiler. 18K 11/13/12
TBL - Table Building Language. Internal details of the Multics PL/I compiler. 8K 03/14/11
Execution Environment. The execution environment for Multics programs. How code was executed in Multics, hardware architectural support and system conventions. 139K 04/24/14
Communications and Networking. The evolution of Multics communication and networking facilities. 123K 08/14/14
Multics Bootstrap Loading. The evolution of Multics bootstrap loading and BOS. 42K 04/28/13
Multics Failure Recovery. How Multics recovered from hardware and software failures. 61K 04/28/13
Multics and Hyperchannel. A project at ASEA to connect Multics to Modcomp computers via Hyperchannel. 14K 09/01/14
Record Stocks and the Physical Volume Scavenger. Tutorial description of Record Stocks in Multics. Pages are allocated to segments so crash recovery is safe and fast. 27K 09/01/14
Multics Library Processes and Tools. How Multics source and object libraries were managed. 22K 02/14/13
"And They Argued All Night...". The history of the Internet. An article for Matrix News. 31K 02/18/14
The Multics Scheduler. Three generations of Multics scheduling algorithms. 29K 02/28/14
Multics Leap Year Calculations. Y2K was anticipated as early as 1966. 13K 11/19/12
The who command. The Multics who command. 19K 02/14/13
Home Terminals. Forty years of logging in from home. 30K 11/17/14
Printer Software. Printers, listings, and crash dumps. 28K 08/14/14
The New Storage System. 1975 project to replace the file storage system. 30K 02/28/14
Multics History. PDF slides from John Gintell's lecture on Multics History to the ACM Greater Boston Chapter. Also available on YouTube. 94K 05/09/14
Observations about Software Maintenance. A talk to the Ada SIG by Paul Stachour about the Multics Way. 34K 09/08/11
Multics Data Security. Security controls in Multics. Published in Scientific Honeyweller (Vol. 2 No. 2) and as Honeywell document GA01. 49K 06/09/13
The Computer Utility and the Community. 1967 paper describing the social imact of time-sharing and remote access. Presentation at IEEE International Convention, 1967. 39K 03/16/15
Source Code. Index to source code modules on this site. 15K 09/25/12
source-index.pl1. Index to Multics source files by library and bound segment. 1304K 06/22/11
activate.pl1. PL/I source of File system module activate.pl1 29K 03/13/11
link_snap.pl1. PL/I source of dynamic linker. 42K 03/14/11
pxss.alm. ALM source of Multics scheduler. 175K 03/14/11
fim.alm. ALM source file for the Fault Interceptor Module. 114K 03/14/11
vtoc_man.pl1. PL/I source of the Multics storage system VTOC manager. 52K 03/14/11
dialup_.pl1. PL/I source of answering service module dialup_.pl1 176K 03/14/11
bound-info-rtns.s.archive. PL/I source of 12 Multics user ring programs. 390K 03/14/11
calendar.pl1. PL/I source of user command calendar.pl1 60K 03/14/11
bigletter_.pl1. PL/I source of utility module used in printer head page. 27K 03/14/11
mxload - Read Multics Backup Tapes. Description of mxload tools for reading Multics backup tapes. 16K 09/01/14
Development Documents. Internal documents produced during system development 26K 01/14/15
Multics Design Notebook, Section I: Introduction. Very early design documents. 17K 11/20/05
Multics System Programmer's Manual Table of Contents 194K 03/16/15
MSPM BA.1    MSPM - General Information. Early 1960s design for Multics. 9K 11/20/05
MSPM BA.2    Summary of Multics technical policy. Key early decisions. 10K 11/20/05
MSPM BA.3.00 Documentation Conventions. Rules for MSPM 12K 11/20/05
MSPM BB.2    System Module Interfaces (PL/I Subset for System Programming) 24K 04/29/13
MSPM BB.2.01 EPL Subset for System Programming. Definition of REPL. 11K 11/20/05
MSPM BB.3.01 Multics Standard Magnetic Tape Format 13K 11/20/05
MSPM BX.1.00 Multics Command Language. Language implemented by the shell. 24K 11/20/05
Index to MTBs. Multics Technical Bulletins 233K 03/09/14
AG91 TOC. Table of Contents of the Multics Programmer's manual: Reference Guide. 126K 03/13/11
AW17 Commands and Active Functions. List of Multics commands 109K 09/08/11
Segment Name Suffixes. List of legal segment name suffixes. 21K 03/13/11
Rules for the Multics Change Review Board. MAB-048 25K 09/08/11
Sites. Listing of all Multics sites. 61K 04/24/14
Site Timeline. Graphical display of site history. 38K 04/24/14
Site History: AFDSC. US Air Force Data Services Center, Pentagon 18K 09/24/12
Site History: Avon. Avon Universities Computing Centre, Bristol, England 40K 06/26/13
Site History: Bell Canada. Bell Canada, 2 sites 33K 06/04/13
Site History: CISL. Honeywell Cambridge Information Systems Laboratory, Cambridge MA 16K 01/18/14
Site History: DND-H. Canadian Department of National Defence, Halifax NS 25K 06/22/13
Site History: DOCKMASTER. US National Security Agency, Linthicum MD 27K 04/29/13
Site History: Ford. Ford Motor Company, Detroit, MI 24K 04/28/13
More Pictures of the Ford Multics Decomissioning. Cake at the Wake. 12K 04/28/13
Site History: GM. General Motors Corporate, Detroit, MI 24K 09/24/12
Site history: MIT. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 24K 08/14/14
MIT Photos. MIT Multics Contract Signing event, 1980s 7K 09/24/12
MIT and BTL Hardware (1967) 13K 09/24/12
Site History: NWGS. US Navy Naval War Games system, 4 sites. 23K 09/07/14
Site History: OU. Oakland University, Rochester MI 21K 09/24/12
Site History: PRHA. Puerto Rican Highway Authority, San Juan, PR 19K 09/24/12
Site History: RADC. Rome Air Development Center, Griffiss AFB, Rome NY 25K 02/07/13
Site History: RAE. Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hampshire, England 15K 09/24/12
Site History: STC. Standard Telephones and Cables, New Southgate, London, England 24K 04/28/13
Site History: System M. Honeywell System M, Phoenix AZ 19K 04/29/13
Site History: System X. Bull Systeme X, Louveciennes, France 16K 06/09/13
Site History: UC & ACTC. University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada 20K 09/24/12
Site History: USGS. US Geological Survey, 3 sites 19K 08/09/14
Site History: USL. University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette LA 17K 06/04/13
About the Website. Administrative information. 21K 03/16/15
Web Site Design. Design principles and maintenance instructions. 61K 02/24/15
Changes. Reverse chronological list of website changes this year. 12K 03/16/15
Changes 1994-2005. Website changes in prior years. 351K 02/10/15
News. Current events involving Multics 19K 01/12/15
Links. Links to other sites on the Web relevant to Multics. 59K 01/23/15
Image Gallery. Thumbnails of images on the site. 137K 01/12/15
Site Map 0K 03/16/15

(187 MTBs are not listed: see the MTB Index.)