Multics 447 pages
07 Jan 2017

Website Map

History | People | Library | Sites | About
Home Page. Multics site home page 27K 12/13/16
Multics History. Narrative history of Multics. 98K 12/07/16
Features. Features of the system 82K 08/14/14
DPS 8M Instruction Set. Meaning of instruction set mnemonics 48K 07/29/15
6180 opcodes - normal. Operation Code Map (bit 27 = 0) 3K 11/08/12
6180 opcodes - EIS. Operation Code Map (bit 27 = 1) 2K 11/08/12
AL39 Multics Processor Manual. 1.5MB PDF 1505K 11/08/12
Myths. Incorrect statements about Multics found on the web. 67K 03/30/16
Project MAC. History of MIT Project MAC. 74K 10/25/16
Dates. List of Multics related events in time order. 59K 05/25/16
Glossary Index. Dictionary of Multics terms, concepts, and jargon. 94K 07/23/16
Glossary - A 98K 07/23/16
Glossary - B 44K 07/23/16
Glossary - C 60K 07/23/16
Glossary - D 60K 07/23/16
Glossary - E 45K 07/23/16
Glossary - F 41K 07/23/16
Glossary - G 24K 07/23/16
Glossary - H 24K 07/23/16
Glossary - I 49K 07/23/16
Glossary - J 15K 07/23/16
Glossary - K 20K 07/23/16
Glossary - L 41K 07/23/16
Glossary - M 77K 07/23/16
Glossary - N 27K 07/23/16
Glossary - O 21K 07/23/16
Glossary - P 86K 07/23/16
Glossary - Q 20K 07/23/16
Glossary - R 54K 07/23/16
Glossary - S 81K 07/23/16
Glossary - T 52K 07/23/16
Glossary - U 29K 07/23/16
Glossary - V 28K 07/23/16
Glossary - W 19K 07/23/16
Glossary - X 18K 07/23/16
Glossary - Y 13K 07/23/16
Glossary - Z 17K 07/23/16
The Multics History Project. Project to preserve historical artifacts about the Multics operating system. 16K 02/26/15
History Project Wish List. Material we'd like to find for the Multics History Project. 17K 10/27/12
Letter From Corby. On the occasion of the shutdown of the last Multics system. 13K 01/24/13
Multicians. List of contributors to Multics. 580K 12/04/16
Multicians Registration. Signup form 19K 09/24/12 Information on mail addresses in the domain. 21K 07/23/16
Stories. Anecdotes and war stories about Multics. 63K 10/07/16
Pictures of the MIT 6180. Publicity pictures from 1973 14K 04/29/13
GE-645 Circuit Board. Actual board from the BTL GE-645. 14K 10/06/16
It Can Be Done. Writing bug-free software. 15K 10/09/16
Shangri-La and the Paris 645. The 1970 "merger" and an early software factory. 16K 09/01/14
ST. JOHN'S HOSTS MULTICS. Honeywell internal newsletter from 1981. 8K 10/09/16
Origin of the Cookie Monster. A legendary Multics hack. 16K 10/09/16
Corby. Homage to our leader, Fernando J. Corbató 26K 11/09/15
The Spirit of Multics. Remark by Don Wagner. 11K 09/01/14
Installing the GE-645 in Paris. Story by Dave Vinograd. 17K 10/06/16
Teaching Multics in Tokyo. Story by Dave Vinograd. 18K 10/06/16
The Developer's Wail. Story by Dave Vinograd. 12K 10/06/16
MacLisp at ENWGS. Story by Robert Matern. 14K 09/01/14
Multics Humor at ENWGS. Jokes about ENWGS 17K 10/06/16
Organick's Book. How to order Organick's book from MIT Press 16K 11/09/15
Operational Statistics, 1969. Charts from the early days of Multics service at MIT. 14K 04/29/13
Honeywell Management. Inside story of Honeywell politics. 22K 10/09/16
Hodie Natus Est Radici Frater. A 1976 error message in Latin. 22K 03/23/16
How Many Users?. CTSS load and Multics performance in the 1960s. 14K 09/01/14
Summer 1977: I was a Multics Intern. Dream summer vacation in .. Phoenix. 8K 10/07/16
Project MAC 25th Anniversary. 1988 Project MAC reunion at MIT. 19K 03/24/16
Project MAC 35th Anniversary. 1999 Project MAC reunion 21K 09/01/14
CISL Farewell. Group photo of the CISL group taken in 1985. 15K 08/12/16
USGS-M Recollections. Using Multics in Menlo Park. 19K 06/10/12
Alan Sawyer's Multics Bio. Bell Canada applications conversion. 19K 09/08/11
Julie Jackson's Multics Bio. What Julie worked on. 19K 02/07/13
"You Had To Go To Radio Shack?". Demonstrating the Cray Station to Ford. 19K 09/01/14
Lee Scheffler's Multics Bio. What Lee worked on at Project MAC. 14K 09/01/14
Marketing Multics in the Midwest. Selling Multics in Iowa in a snowstorm. 14K 09/01/14
Short Operator. The true short operator story. 14K 03/14/11
The Magic Finger. Helping the University of Calgary tune its Multics. 16K 03/14/11
Low Bottle Pressure. Famous drum crashes in the 1960s. 20K 09/01/14
The 645 Chip. 1984 plan to put a 645 on a chip. 13K 10/06/16
Message Coordinator. Lessons from early development. 17K 11/09/15
Cryptic Messages from Antiquity. PL/I error messages remembered. 15K 03/13/11
Multics SNOBOL. Multics SNOBOL and the Missing END Statement. 16K 09/01/14
Multo ante natus eram. A date-related crash in 1995. 17K 09/01/14
INRIA Machine Room. The machine room at INRIA, Rocquencourt, France, in October 1991. 12K 04/30/13
Visiting Project MAC. Photo from Oda-san's 1973 visit to Cambridge. 12K 08/14/14
The Palyn Report. Marketing politics. 21K 06/28/16
Phase One. The first words of Multics. 21K 09/01/14
Picnics. Good times in the summer. 18K 09/01/14
An Obfuscated PL/I Program. Try to guess what this PL/I program does. 13K 09/01/14
Multics REDUCE. Symbolic algebra and particle physics by Rainer Schöpf. 16K 09/01/14
Multics Reunion and Dinner, June 2004. Events honoring Corby on 19 June 2004. 23K 10/09/16
2004 Multics Reunion Attendance 6K 11/08/12
Corbató Fellowship. Graduate Fellowship honoring Corby. 13K 04/29/13
2012 Multics Reunion . Informal gathering of Multicians in June 2012 18K 10/09/16
645 System: Artist's Conception. A painting of the future GE-645. 13K 04/29/13
Visiting CISL. Training the flying squad. 16K 09/01/14
Snow Joke. A message in the snow. 12K 09/01/14
Marketing Item. Teaching salesmen to consider Multics. 12K 09/01/14
Industrial Nucleonics and DCC. 1970s marketing successes. 13K 09/01/14
Marketing Successes. 1970s newsletter articles. 14K 09/01/14
Publicity Photos. More 1970s news articles. 13K 09/01/14
Honeywell User News. The first Multics sale in Europe and more. 13K 09/01/14
Installing USL. Crayfish and hurricanes. 14K 09/01/14
Flower. A never shipped Multics CPU. 15K 07/14/15
Using Ring 5. Protecting a source control database. 14K 09/01/14
Security. How the Air Force broke Multics security. 26K 09/01/14
The Origin of the Shell. RUNCOM and its progeny. 14K 09/01/14
Tech Square. Where we worked 26K 09/01/14
Telefunken TR440. Interesting German machine. 14K 09/01/14
Timing Channels. Covert channels and the star property. 19K 09/01/14
The Louisiana State Trooper Story. Another marketing legend. 16K 09/01/14
THVV Multics Bio. What Tom worked on. 28K 03/22/16
Unix and Multics. Our famous child. 24K 12/13/16
Benchmarks. Stories of benchmark tests done to sell Multics. 38K 10/09/16
The FJCC Papers. How the FJCC papers were written. 18K 10/09/16
The User Ring Newsletter. Newsletter for HLSUA Multics users, June 1986. 14K 03/19/14
Ring Zero and the Null Pointers. CNO Multicians who played rock and roll. 13K 05/09/14
Early days of Multics and Performance. Early days of Multics and rusty analysis on Performance Improvement. 24K 08/14/14
Project MAC 50th Anniversary. 2014 Project MAC and Multics reunion 33K 10/09/16
Project MAC Recollections. One graduate student's recollections. 25K 01/12/15
Multics Panel at ACSAC 30. Multics security Panel, December 2014 23K 10/09/16
Honeywell Brain Damage. SIPB response to iox_ 16K 10/06/16
The foobar bug. A GE-645 DoS hardware bug that was never fixed. 22K 10/06/16
Tapes for Phoenix. The GIOC bug that was never fixed. 30K 10/06/16
My Introduction to Multics. How I got started with Multics. 13K 03/30/16
NWGS Stories. Stories from the development of the NWGS code at Moorestown NJ. 23K 03/26/16
ASEA Stories. Personal stories from working at ASEA in Sweden. 15K ases-stories.htmx not found
The CISL Wake. 28 photos from the CISL Wake held in May 1986. 19K 08/12/16
Humor. Jokes about Multics. 36K 08/14/14
Memorabilia. Trinkets, T-shirts, and Ties. 32K 11/10/15
Bibliography. Papers, books, memos, and manuals related to Multics 437K 12/11/16
Papers Online. Classic papers about Multics available on the Web. 32K 12/11/16
Introduction and Overview of the Multics System. Classic 1965 paper introducing Multics 59K 08/12/16
System Design of a Computer for Time Sharing Applications. Classic 1965 paper introducing Multics 30K 08/12/16
Structure of the Multics Supervisor. Classic 1965 paper introducing Multics supervisor design 49K 08/12/16
A General-Purpose File System For Secondary Storage. Classic 1965 paper introducing Multics file system 72K 08/12/16
Communications and Input/Output Switching in a Multiplex Computing System. Classic 1965 paper introducing Multics I/O system 44K 08/12/16
Some Thoughts About the Social Implications of Accessible Computing. Classic 1965 paper introducing Multics 24K 08/12/16
A brief description of privacy measures in the Multics operating system. Brief 1967 technical paper describing security in the Multics operating system. AFIPS SJCC, 1967 9K 08/31/08
Protection in an information processing utility. 1968 description of Multics protection mechanism. 434K 11/08/12
Virtual memory, processes, and sharing in Multics. 1968 paper on processes, linkage, stack, call 39K 09/08/11
Sensitive issues in the design of multi-use systems. 1968 paper on OS design 272K 12/06/16
Some Considerations of Supervisor Program Design for Multiplexed Computer Systems. 1968 paper on OS design 71K 11/08/12
A Paging Experiment with the Multics System. 1969 paper on paging 284K 01/24/16
The Multics Virtual Memory: Concepts and Design. 1969 paper on virtual memory 67K 04/29/13
The Role of Motherhood in the Pop Art of System Programming. 1969 paper on system programming 29K 07/17/10
The Multics PL/1 Compiler. 1969 paper on PL/I compiler implementation 58K 09/08/11
Program naming problems in a shared tree-structured hierarchy. 1969 paper on search rules. 233K 12/06/16
The Instrumentation of Multics. 1969 paper on Multics instrumentation 38K 02/18/14
Remote Terminal Character Stream Processing in Multics. 1970 paper on termimal I/O 93K 11/08/12
Technical and Human Engineering Problems in Connecting Terminals to a Time-Sharing System. 1970 paper on terminal I/O 829K 11/08/12
Some Observations about Decentralization of File Systems. 1971 paper on file system design 40K 11/08/12
A Hardware Architecture for Implementing Protection Rings. 1971 paper on rings 75K 09/08/11
The Multics Input/Output System. 1971 paper on I/O system 46K 09/08/11
Multics--The first seven years. 1972 78K 08/14/14
Footnotes for the paper Multics: The First Seven Years. Classic 1972 paper on Multics experience 8K 11/20/05
A simple linear model of demand paging performance. 1972 paper on working sets 338K 11/08/12
MOO in Multics. 1972 paper on games in Multics 180K 11/08/12
Protection and the Control of Information Sharing in Multics. 1974 paper on security 485K 01/24/16
Ongoing Research and Development in Information Protection. 1974 paper on security 620K 01/24/16
Automated Merging of Software Modifications. 1977 paper on merge_ascii 31K 04/30/13
A Managerial View of the Multics System Development. 1977 paper on Multics project experience 60K 08/14/14
The Multics MACLISP Compiler: The Basic Hackery -- a Tutorial. 1977 paper on LISP compiler 142K 02/18/14
footnotes for The Multics MACLISP Compiler: The Basic Hackery. Footnotes 18K 02/18/14
The Multics System Programming Process. 1978 paper on Multics process 23K 11/09/15
Multics Emacs: The History, Design and Implementation. 1979 Mother of All Emacs Papers 155K 07/05/15
Experiences With an Interactive Electronic Meeting Facility. 1983 paper on forum 27K 03/14/11
Multics Through the Looking Glass. 1980 HLSUA paper on tuning Calgary 66K 02/18/14
footnotes for Multics Through the Looking Glass. Footnotes 4K 09/24/12
Implementing Forth for the Multics operating system. paper at the 1985 Rochester Forth Conference 1971K 08/11/15
Articles. Technical articles about Multics. 17K 03/27/16
Multics Data Security. Security controls in Multics. Published in Scientific Honeyweller (Vol. 2 No. 2) and as Honeywell doc GA01. 50K 06/09/13
Observations about Software Maintenance. A talk to the Ada SIG by Paul Stachour about the Multics Way. 35K 09/08/11
Multics History. PDF slides from John Gintell's lecture on Multics History to the ACM Greater Boston Chapter. Also available on YouTube. 94K 05/09/14
The New Storage System. 1975 project to replace the file storage system. 31K 02/28/14
Printer Software. Printers, listings, and crash dumps. 28K 08/14/14
Home Terminals. Forty years of logging in from home. 30K 11/17/14
The who command. The Multics who command. 20K 06/13/16
Multics Leap Year Calculations. Y2K was anticipated as early as 1966. 14K 11/19/12
Priority Scheduling. HLSUA Presentation, Forum XXV. 173K 01/24/16
The Multics Scheduler. Three generations of Multics scheduling algorithms. 35K 02/26/16
"And They Argued All Night...". The history of the Internet. An article for Matrix News. 31K 02/18/14
Multics Library Processes and Tools. How Multics source and object libraries were managed. 22K 02/14/13
Record Stocks and the Physical Volume Scavenger. Tutorial description of Record Stocks in Multics. Pages are allocated to segments so crash recovery is safe and fast. 27K 09/01/14
Multics and Hyperchannel. A project at ASEA to connect Multics to Modcomp computers via Hyperchannel. 14K 09/01/14
Multics Failure Recovery. How Multics recovered from hardware and software failures. 62K 07/23/16
Multics Bootstrap Loading. The evolution of Multics bootstrap loading and BOS. 43K 10/04/15
Communications and Networking. The evolution of Multics communication and networking facilities. 130K 07/23/16
Execution Environment. The execution environment for Multics programs. How code was executed in Multics, hardware architectural support and system conventions. 141K 03/15/16
PL/I. The history of EPL, Version 1 and Version 2 PL/I, as well as related topics. 61K 07/23/16
TMG. The language used to build EPL. 23K 03/14/11
Version I PL/I Timeline. Development history of Multics Version 1 PL/I compiler. 18K 11/13/12
TBL - Table Building Language. Internal details of the Multics PL/I compiler. 9K 03/14/11
Final Evaluation Report of Honeywell Multics MR 11.0. 36 MB PDF. 6204K 04/30/15
The B2 Final Evaluation Report. Report on NSA Evaluation of Multics security. 16K 05/04/15
B2 Security Evaluation. The history of Multics security features and the NCSC Orange Book security evaluation of Multics in the mid-80s. 133K 12/09/16
Code Auditing. The informal code review process used in Multics. 33K 03/22/16
Development Process. The Multics development process. 68K 06/28/16
Development Process History. History of the Multics development process. 24K 03/22/16
Trouble Report System. The system for handling Multics trouble reports. 24K 03/22/16
The Reduction Compiler. A tool we used to build tools in Multics. 27K 07/23/16
The Computer Utility and the Community. 1967 paper describing the social imact of time-sharing and remote access. Presentation at IEEE International Convention, 1967. 40K 03/16/15
Source Code. Index to source code modules on this site. 15K 09/25/12
source-index.pl1. Index to Multics source files by library and bound segment. 1850K 07/27/16
activate.pl1. PL/I source of File system module activate.pl1 30K 03/13/11
link_snap.pl1. PL/I source of dynamic linker. 42K 03/14/11
pxss.alm. ALM source of Multics scheduler. 176K 03/14/11
fim.alm. ALM source file for the Fault Interceptor Module. 115K 03/14/11
vtoc_man.pl1. PL/I source of the Multics storage system VTOC manager. 52K 03/14/11
dialup_.pl1. PL/I source of answering service module dialup_.pl1 177K 03/14/11
bound-info-rtns.s.archive. PL/I source of 12 Multics user ring programs. 390K 03/14/11
calendar.pl1. PL/I source of user command calendar.pl1 60K 03/14/11
bigletter_.pl1. PL/I source of utility module used in printer head page. 28K 03/14/11
mxload - Read Multics Backup Tapes. Description of mxload tools for reading Multics backup tapes. 16K 09/01/14
Development Documents. Internal documents produced during system development 28K 03/03/16
Multics Design Notebook, Section I: Introduction. Very early design documents. 17K 11/20/05
Multics System Programmer's Manual Table of Contents 195K 12/13/16
MSPM BA.1    MSPM - General Information. Early 1960s design for Multics. 9K 07/30/15
MSPM BA.2    Summary of Multics technical policy. Key early decisions. 11K 07/30/15
MSPM BA.3.00 Documentation Conventions. Rules for MSPM 12K 07/30/15
MSPM BB.2    System Module Interfaces (PL/I Subset for System Programming) 24K 07/30/15
MSPM BB.2.01 EPL Subset for System Programming. Definition of REPL. 11K 07/30/15
MSPM BB.3.01 Multics Standard Magnetic Tape Format 14K 07/30/15
MSPM BX.1.00 Multics Command Language. Language implemented by the shell. 24K 07/30/15
Index to MTBs. Multics Technical Bulletins 233K 12/13/16
Index to MABs. Multics Administrative Bulletins 16K 12/13/16
AG91 TOC. Table of Contents of the Multics Programmer's manual: Reference Guide. 126K 07/30/15
AW17 Commands and Active Functions. List of Multics commands 110K 03/09/16
Segment Name Suffixes. List of legal segment name suffixes. 22K 07/29/15
Rules for the Multics Change Review Board. MAB-048 26K 07/30/15
Sites. Listing of all Multics sites. 62K 04/24/14
Site Timeline. Graphical display of site history. 38K 05/25/15
Site History: AFDSC. US Air Force Data Services Center, Pentagon 21K 07/13/15
Site History: ASEA. ASEA, Västerås, Sweden 20K 03/28/16
Site History: Avon. Avon Universities Computing Centre, Bristol, England 41K 01/26/16
Site History: Bell Canada. Bell Canada, 2 sites 33K 06/04/13
Site History: CISL. Honeywell Cambridge Information Systems Laboratory, Cambridge MA 16K 03/26/16
Site History: DND-H. Canadian Department of National Defence, Halifax NS 25K 06/22/13
Site History: DOCKMASTER. US National Security Agency, Linthicum MD 27K 11/09/15
Site History: Ford. Ford Motor Company, Detroit, MI 25K 04/28/13
More Pictures of the Ford Multics Decomissioning. Cake at the Wake. 12K 04/28/13
Site History: GM. General Motors Corporate, Detroit, MI 28K 02/26/16
Site history: MIT. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 25K 08/14/14
MIT Photos. MIT Multics Contract Signing event, 1980s 7K 09/24/12
MIT and BTL Hardware (1967) 13K 09/24/12
Site History: NWGS. US Navy Naval War Games system, 4 sites. 25K 03/26/16
Site History: OU. Oakland University, Rochester MI 22K 09/24/12
Site History: PRHA. Puerto Rican Highway Authority, San Juan, PR 19K 09/24/12
Site History: RADC. Rome Air Development Center, Griffiss AFB, Rome NY 28K 06/24/16
Site History: RAE. Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hampshire, England 16K 09/24/12
Site History: STC. Standard Telephones and Cables, New Southgate, London, England 25K 04/28/13
Site History: System M. Honeywell System M, Phoenix AZ 19K 12/07/16
Site History: System X. Bull Systeme X, Louveciennes, France 16K 08/23/16
Site History: UC & ACTC. University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada 20K 09/24/12
Site History: USGS. US Geological Survey, 3 sites 19K 08/09/14
Site History: USL. University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette LA 20K 06/24/16
About the Website. Administrative information. 21K 03/28/16
Web Site Design. Design principles and maintenance instructions. 65K 08/24/16
Changes. Reverse chronological list of website changes this year. 11K 01/07/17
Changes 1994-2005. Website changes in prior years. 359K 01/01/16
News. Current events involving Multics 20K 03/13/16
Links. Links to other sites on the Web relevant to Multics. 58K 12/13/16
Image Gallery. Thumbnails of images on the site. 151K 08/15/16
Site Map 0K 01/07/17

(186 MTBs are not listed: see the MTB Index.)