History | People | Library | Sites | About Search

For more historical information, see Multics History. The site timeline is a graphical presentation of events in Multics history.

1957 Sputnik
1959 John McCarthy proposes time-sharing in memo to Philip M. Morse, director of the MIT Computation Center.
1961 Burroughs B5000 (Algol, dual CPUs, segmentation)
11/61 MIT Computation Center running IBM 709. 4-user tape CTSS demonstrated.
05/62 Paper on CTSS presented at Spring Joint Computer Conference.
08/62 MIT Computation Center upgraded to IBM 7090. CTSS runs on new hardware.
First Paper on Internet Concept by J. C. R. Licklider & Welden Clark, "On-Line Man Computer Communication".
09/62 BBN timesharing system operational on Digital Equipment PDP-1
11/62 MIT Project MAC suggested by J. C. R. Licklider.
12/62 Ferranti Atlas (paging) (12/7/62)
1963 Timesharing running at SDC on spare AN/FSQ-32 (funded by ARPA)
01/63 Project MAC proposal submitted to ARPA.
03/63 Project MAC authorized & funded by ARPA IPTO. ($3 million contract)
04/63 MIT Computation Center 7090 with second 32K memory, 1302 disk, 7750
05/63 Initial JOSS service on JOHNNIAC at RAND.
07/63 Project MAC summer study, using CTSS on Computation Center IBM 7090, attended by many computer scientists.
09/63 Project to establish a time-sharing system at Dartmouth begun by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz.
10/63 Project MAC IBM 7090 (red machine) installed, later upgraded to 7094 II.
04/64 IBM announces System/360 (4/7/64)
05/64 DTSS brought up at Dartmouth on a GE-225/DATANET-30. (05/01/64, 4AM)
06/64 Corby's group moved to Tech Square
08/64 General Electric selected as supplier for MAC research machine, contract signed.
11/64 Bell Labs joins Multics project with MIT and GE
1965 First inter-computer communication, between TX-2 and Q-32 (Marill and Roberts)
08/65 GE 635 delivered to Project MAC, 6.36 simulator running
IBM announces TSS/360
CTSS MAIL command available to users
11/65 Special Multics session at Fall Joint Computer Conference, 6 papers presented.
06/66 Flag Day (06/14/66)
1967 WYLBUR and ORVYL developed at Stanford on 360/67.
01/67 GE 645 delivered to Project MAC
CP-40/CMS running at IBM Scientific Center on 360/40
03/67 GE 635 removed from Project MAC
milestone phase .5 (file system on 645 simulator)
04/67 CP/CMS in service on 360/67 at Lincoln Labs
05/67 MTS in service on 360/67 at Michigan
09/67 Digital Equipment PDP-10 announced
TENEX begun at BBN
12/67 milestone phase 1 (single process boot on 645)
03/68 milestone A3 - 3 processes (Rappaport)
04/68 IBM decommits TSS/360
05/68 IBM releases CP/67 version 1 to 8 sites
07/68 First Multics picnic
08/68 RADC GE-645 installed
10/68 Demonstrable Initial Multics milestone (8 users)
12/68 Multics running console sessions in 545 Tech Sq, self-hosting
moved MAC 7094 to MIT IPC, building 39
01/69 Limited Initial Multics milestone (12 users)
01/69 Integrated mini-GIM & TTY DIM into system
04/69 Bell Labs drops out of Multics development
Unix begun on PDP-7 at Bell Labs
IBM un-decommits TSS/360
05/69 file system 2.0
06/69 milestone 3.0.10
07/69 Experimental MIT use of Multics (Cambridge Project)
10/69 MSS 4.0 - Multics public at MIT
new PL1 compiler, new traffic control
First ARPANet connection UCLA-SRI (10/29/69)
12/69 MSS 5.0 - DSU270's (10 MB disk)
03/70 MSS 6.0 - Revised command loop
MSS 7.0 - page control rewrite
DEC announces PDP-11 (3/28/70)
05/70 First Multics talk at GESHUA XI in Seattle (THVV)
06/70 MSS 8.0 - pre-paging and post-purging
TENEX on the air (6/15/70)
08/70 MSS 9.0 - new Directory Control, User Control
Multics installed on RADC machine
10/70 MSS 10.0 - new ttydim
Honeywell buys GE computer division: the "merger"
11/70 MSS 11.0 - new init
12/70 MSS 12.0 - Support for DSU170's
MSS 13.0 - Associative Memory fix
Unix ported to PDP-11 at Bell Labs
1971 Software Factory on BCO 645 installed
01/71 MSS 14.0 - Moved processes from ring 32 to ring 4
01/71 Multics Symposium at MIT Jan 21-22
04/71 MSS 15.0 - retrofit.
DTSS simulator using Dartmouth BASIC
05/71 IBM decommits TSS/360 again
09/71 MIT 645 Multics providing service on ARPANet (host #6) via GIMPSPIF.(RFC 0252)
RCA sells its computer division to Univac
1972 Paris 645 installed at Bull on Av. Gambetta
11/72 MIT 6180 delivered
System M "6090" installed.
12/72 MSS 18.0. - ACL redo: CACLs eliminated
01/73 Multics and H6180 announcement at Boston Museum of Science (01/17/73)
07/73 CTSS turned off at MIT IPC (07/20/73)
11/73 AFDSC installed
12/73 MIT 6180 Multics connected to ARPANet (host #44) by ABSI.
12/73 Thompson and Ritchie present Unix paper at ACM SOSP
1974 CISL development machine installed
01/74 MSS 22.0
Ford installed
05/74 GM Corporate (GMISCA) installed
06/74 MR 1.0: First standard release. Compilers support EIS, BASIC, GCOS Simulator, DSS191. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN.
1975 RADC, BCO, System M upgraded to 6180s
01/75 MR 2.0: CPU cache, NPS, 1600bpi tape, TN1200. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, tape.
03/75 MR 2.1: iox_, probe, trace, debug, On-line T&D. Enhanced administration & metering, GCOS.
06/75 MR 2.2: Secure Mail. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, BASIC, system tools.
09/75 MR 3.0: MCS, Scheduler, RCP, COBOL-74, SORT. Enhanced GCOS.
1975 Ford deinstalled
07/75 University of Southwestern Louisiana (USL) installed
1976 DCC, USGS Reston installed
02/76 MSS 28.0: New storage system
03/76 MR 3.1: AIM, DTSS Simulator, HEALS, 4 FNPs. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, COBOL, ALM, commands.
07/76 MR 4.0: New storage system, MRDS, MSU451, MERGE, 16MB SCUs. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, SORT, Graphics system, mail.
09/76 MR 4.0.1: Reconfiguration & Operator Interfaces.
12/76 MR 5.0: 4MW SCUs. Enhanced MCS, COBOL, FORTRAN, MRDS.
1977 Honeywell-MIT collaboration ends
USGS Menlo Park and Denver installed
Puerto Rican Highway Authority (PRHA) installed
Industrial Nucleonics installed
Apple Computer founded (01/03/77)
10/77 MR 6.0: tape, ESD, salvager, RJE, WORDPRO, 7 CPUs, multiple tape controllers. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, COBOL, MRDS, reliability & damage recovery.
1978 Ford installed again
INRIA/Rocquencourt installed
University of Grenoble installed
University of Calgary (UC) installed
03/78 MR 6.1
09/78 MR 6.5: Video Terminals, DN6670, IBM 3780, 4 FNPs, run units, resource reservation, remote station TTFs. Enhanced communication, FORTRAN optimizer.
11/78 Palyn Report presented to Honeywell management
12/78 MR 6.5a: remote station TTFs. Enhanced G115 protocol.
Oakland University (OU) installed
1979 INRA, Renault, Bell Canada installed
01/79 Unix setuid patent issued (01/16/79)
01/79 CNO installed (01/22/79)
03/79 MR 7.0: GTSS Simulator, TP, MSU0500, Tape Archive, T&D, tape archive, audit facility, T&D subsystem, 32 new terminal types. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, communications, bulk I/O.
06/79 MR 7.0a: L6 Concentrator, MTU0610 9 Track tape, Emacs, polled VIP7760. Enhanced APL.
09/79 MR 7.0b: Enhanced FIPS COBOL, WORDPRO.
Bristol & Bath (Avon) installed
1980 Stratus formed, many Multicians leave CISL
NWGS Level 68 development system installed at US Naval War College.
Dir. Prevision, EPSHOM, INSEE, IRT installed
03/80 MR 8.0: VIP7801/7804, IBM 3270, Process Preservation, MSS0500, ORION support, Bulk Store removed. Enhanced communications, Emacs, GCOS TSS, COBOL, WORDPRO, MRDS, tape interface to PPS.
03/80 NSA Site N (Flagship) installed 03/27/80.
12/80 MR 8.2: MSU0500/501. Enhanced: T&D, COBOL, PL/I, FORTRAN, BOS
1981 VW (USA) installed in Honeywell space
Arizona State University installed
INSEE/Paris, CERAM, CICB, Culture, CICT, INRIA/Sophia installed
08/81 IBM PC announced (8/14/81)
09/81 St Johns installed
10/81 MR 9.0: DPS 8/70M CPUs, 8 FNPs, Executive Mail, CSU6601, MSP0611/0612, MTP0611. Enhanced BOS, COLTS/MTAR, COBOL, MRDS, WORDPRO.
12/81 Shutdown of Virginia Polytechnic Institute
1982 DND Halifax installed (dual L68);
Bull Systeme X installed at Louveciennes (L68/DPS-8);
CIRIL, CNET, INRIA/Rennes, Mainz installed;
VW shut down, deal canceled by VW corporate
03/82 MR 9.1: Enhanced: T&D, HASP, Emacs, FORTRAN, Tape.
06/82 STC installed
07/82 PMDC moved from Camelback
10/82 MR 10.0: 4 IOMs, IOM Paged Mode, Dial-out, X.25, Forum, MTU0630. Enhanced HDLC & BSC to 72KB, record stocks, system recovery, forum command.
11/82 Cardiff (CJCC) installed.
1983 SNECMA, CICRP, INNPPP, Credit Lyonnais, SOZAWE, ONERA/CERT, SNECMA, ELF, LUT, Brunel installed
USGS Menlo Park shut down
01/83 CNO gets 8/70M
03/83 UBCC installed
04/83 CCVR installed
06/83 Canadian DND (DDDS) installed
09/83 CISL moves from Tech Square to Cambridge Center
10/83 MR 10.1: Printers 901/1201, X.25 LAPB, Subsystem Utilities, EURCs 8001/8002/8004. Enhanced Video, tape, mail, MRDS, FNP memory.
ACTC installed
1984 USGS Reston, Dir. Prevision, INSEE shut down
DOCKMASTER installed
01/84 MR 10.2: Satellite 6M, LINUS. Enhanced operator interface, crash analysis, EURC, APL, FIPS FORTRAN, GCOS simulator, MRDS, ARPANet, X.25.
02/84 ACTC becomes additional development site (2/3/84)
06/84 Special for DND: IO reconfiguration
1985 Almost 100 sites (Gintell ACM speech)
ASU, STC, USGS Denver, INRA, Renault, ELF shut down
ONERA/Paris installed
DND-H upgraded to triple 8-70M
02/85 Flower canceled by Honeywell
06/85 Multics development capped by Honeywell
MR 11.0: B2 security, 32k Cache, FAMIS, Executive Forum, PC Support, Bootload Multics; 2741, 1050, and ARDS support removed. Enhanced IOM reconfiguration, disk interface, video, FORTRAN, BASIC, mail, dump analysis.
08/85 B2 Orange Book rating awarded to MR 11.0+ by NCSC (08/29/85)
10/85 Black armbands at HLSUA
Multics Company spin-off (based on Flower) proposed at HLSUA
Initial study for NOS (Opus) with MOD-400 group
11/85 Spin-off dismissed by Honeywell
12/85 McDonnell Douglas Transport Aircraft installed
1986 EPSHOM, IRT, CERAM, INRIA/Sophia, Mainz, SOZAWE, Credit Lyonnais shut down
SEP installed
North American Honeywell Bull integrated into Groupe Bull.
01/86 Opus (NOS/VS3) IPR-0 review at Honeywell
05/86 CISL closed (5/22/86), Opus team to Honeywell Billerica
07/86 NWGS DPS 8/70(M) installed at US Naval War College. Level 68 moved to SDF, Moorestown NJ, and got SMS workstations.
12/86 MR 12.0: BOS eliminated, IMU, FIPS tape & disk, C compiler.
1987 Shutdown of SNECMA, CICT
Bull Systeme X moved to Rocquencourt
NWGS TTGL (Dam Neck VA) and TTGP (San Diego) sites installed.
System M moved to DVCP
11/87 Bull takes over Honeywell computer division
12/87 Shutdown of CNO (12/11/87)
1988 Shutdown of INRIA/Rennes, CICB, Culture, CIRIL, CNET, INNPPP, ONERA
01/88 Shutdown of MIT Multics (MSS 38.3), eqpt to McDonnell (01/02/88)
04/88 Development transferred to ACTC (Calgary)
Opus canceled by Bull
05/88 Shutdown of AFDSC system T (05/31/88)
07/88 Shutdown of Brunel University
09/88 Shutdown of CICRP, Grenoble, Rennes
11/88 MR 12.2: lint and make; TCP/IP support and inter-system mail.
10/88 Shutdown of Bristol & Bath (Avon) (10/10/88)
09/89 Shutdown of St Johns (SJU) (09/14/89)
Shutdown of RADC (09/30/89)
Shutdown of UBCC
12/89 MR 12.3
1990 Oakland University shut down
Bell Canada Toronto, CCVR, SEP shut down
01/90 Shutdown of ENWGS-SDF
05/90 Shutdown of University of Southwestern Louisiana (USL)
12/90 MR 12.4
1991 Shutdown of ABB (formerly Industrial Nucleonics).
03/91 Shutdown of Cardiff Joint Computing Centre (CJCC) (03/15/91)
07/91 Shutdown of Loughborough University
Shutdown of ASEA Brown Boveri
1992 Shutdown of Bull Systeme X, BCO
02/92 Shutdown of AFDSC system D (02/28/92)
03/92 Shutdown of INRIA
Shutdown of AFDSC system M (03/31/92)
06/92 Shutdown of last AFDSC machine, system Z (06/30/92)
09/92 Shutdown of Site N (Flagship).
11/92 MR 12.5
1993 Shutdown of Bell Canada Montreal.
04/93 alt.os.multics started by Magnus Olsson
06/93 Shutdown of U of Calgary (06/16/93)
09/93 Shutdown of DDDS/ORAE (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) (09/03/93)
11/93 Shutdown of Honeywell System M (Phoenix) (11/28/93)
1994 Multicians website begun by THVV with much help and advice from BSG.
12/95 Shutdown of McDonnell Douglas (12/22/95)
04/96 Shutdown of last NWGS system, at US Naval War College.
04/97 Shutdown of Ford (04/25/97)
03/98 Shutdown of DOCKMASTER (03/31/98) Hardware to the Computer Museum History Center.
10/98 Shutdown of GM (10/20/98)
1999 PRHA no longer used?
07/00 Shutdown of CGI (was Perigon (was ACTC)) (07/07/00)
10/00 Shutdown of DND-H (17:08Z 10/30/00)
11/07 Open Source for Multics is hosted at MIT, courtesy of Bull HN
11/14 Harry Reed's Multics simulator booted Multics MR 12.5.
06/17 Release 1.0 of the Multics simulator available, along with Multics MR 12.6f.