Items in italics are non-Multics events included for historical context.
For more historical information, see Multics History. The site timeline is a graphical presentation of Multics site histories.
Whirlwind at MIT: core memory, SAGE.
GE established a computer dept in Phoenix for the Bank of America ERMA project.
MIT Computation Center running IBM 704.
US DoD ARPA established; MIT President J R Killian Presidential Science Advisor.
MIT Prof. John McCarthy proposes time-sharing in memo to Prof. Philip M. Morse, director of the MIT Computation Center.
Burroughs B5000 (Algol, dual CPUs, segmentation).
MIT Computation Center running IBM 709. Corby's team demonstrated 4-user tape CTSS.
MIT Computation Center running IBM 7090, Spring 62.
Paper on CTSS presented at 1962 Spring Joint Computer Conference.
MIT Computation Center upgraded to IBM 7090. CTSS running on new hardware.
First Paper on Internet Concept by J. C. R. Licklider & Welden Clark, "On-Line Man Computer Communication".
BBN time-sharing system operational on Digital Equipment PDP-1.
Cuban Missile Crisis showed that US military systems needed improvement. ARPA IPTO established.
MIT Project MAC suggested by J. C. R. Licklider, IPTO director.
Ferranti Atlas (paging) (12/7/62).
GE announces 600 line.
Project MAC proposal submitted to ARPA by MIT Prof. R.M. Fano.
Project MAC authorized & funded by ARPA IPTO. ($3 million contract).
MIT Computation Center installed second 32K memory, 1302 disk, 7750 on IBM 7090.
Corby demonstration of CTSS on WGBH-TV.
Initial JOSS service on JOHNNIAC at RAND.
Time-Sharing running at SDC on (IBM) AN/FSQ-32 (funded by ARPA).
Project MAC summer study, using CTSS on Computation Center IBM 7090, attended by many computer scientists.
Project to build a time-sharing system at Dartmouth begun by John Kemeny and Tom Kurtz.
Project MAC IBM 7090 (red machine) installed at Tech Square running CTSS, later upgraded to IBM 7094 II.
GE 635 group moves to Phoenix from Syracuse.
GE buys Machines Bull.
IBM announces System/360 (4/7/64).
DTSS brought up at Dartmouth on a GE-225/DATANET-30. (05/01/64, 4AM).
Corby's computer systems research group moved to Project MAC 5th floor 545 Tech Square.
General Electric selected as supplier for MAC GE-645 research machine, contract signed.
Bell Labs joins Multics project with MIT and GE.
First inter-computer communication, between TX-2 and Q-32 (Marill and Roberts).
NSA RYE time-sharing system on Univac 494: provided multilevel security.
First shipments of GE 635.
IBM announces TSS/360.
CTSS MAIL command available to users.
MIT Computation Center bringing up CTSS on blue machine.
Special Multics session at Fall Joint Computer Conference, 6 papers presented.
GE Cambridge Information Systems Laboratory (CISL) opened in 545 Tech Square.
Flag Day (06/14/66).
1967 3 sites
WYLBUR and ORVYL developed at Stanford on 360/67.
EPL compiler developed by Doug McIlroy and Bob Morris at BTL after Digitek failed to produce.
GE 645 delivered to Project MAC and BTL. (Segmentation and paging.)
CP-40/CMS running at IBM Scientific Center on 360/40.
GE 635 removed from Project MAC.
milestone phase .5 (file system on 645 simulator).
CP/CMS in service on 360/67 at Lincoln Labs.
MTS in service on 360/67 at Michigan.
TENEX begun at BBN.
Release 1 of TSS/360 on 360/67.
milestone phase 1 (single process boot on 645). (Noel Morris, Tom Van Vleck)
1968 3 sites
GE Large Systems Department moves to Phoenix from Syracuse.
milestone A3 - 3 processes (Bob Rappaport).
IBM decommits TSS/360.
IBM releases CP/67 version 1 to 8 sites.
First Multics picnic in Groton MA.
RADC GE-645 installed.
Demonstrable Initial Multics milestone (8 users).
Multics self-hosting, console sessions in Tech Square.
moved MAC 7094 to MIT IPC, building 39.
1969 3 sites
EPL Subset for System Programming (REPL) standardized.
Limited Initial Multics milestone (12 users).
Bell Labs drops out of Multics development.
Unix begun on PDP-7 at Bell Labs.
IBM un-decommits TSS/360.
file system 2.0.
Experimental MIT use of Multics (Cambridge Project).
MSS 4.0: new PL1 compiler, new traffic control.
Multics public at MIT for paying customers.
First ARPANet connection UCLA-SRI (10/29/69).
MSS 5.0 - Support for DSU270 (10 MB disk).
1970 3 sites
GE CISL moved to 575 Tech Square.
MSS 6.0 - Revised command loop MSS 7.0 - page control rewrite.
DEC announces PDP-11 (3/28/70).
First Multics talk at GESHUA XI in Seattle (Van Vleck).
MSS 8.0 - pre-paging and post-purging.
TENEX on the air (6/15/70).
MSS 9.0 - new Directory Control, User Control.
Multics installed on RADC system.
MSS 10.0 - new ttydim.
MSS 11.0 - new init.
MSS 12.0 - Support for DSU170s.
MSS 13.0 - Associative Memory fix.
Unix ported to PDP-11 at Bell Labs.
1971 4 sites
Honeywell Software Factory for Level 64 installed on BCO 645.
MSS 14.0 - Moved processes from ring 32 to ring 4.
Multics Symposium at MIT Jan 21-22.
MSS 15.0 - retrofit.
DTSS simulator using Dartmouth BASIC added to Multics.
IBM decommits TSS/360 again.
MIT 645 Multics providing service on ARPANet (host #6) via GIMPSPIF.(RFC 0252).
RCA sells its computer division to Univac.
1972 6 sites
Organick's book on Multics published.
Anderson Report published, led by Roger Schell.
System M "6090" (early 6180) installed.
MIT H6180 delivered to Building 39.
MSS 18.0. - ACL redo: CACLs eliminated.
1973 7 sites
Honeywell Phoenix Multics Development Center (PMDC) opened.
Multics and H6180 products announced by Honeywell at Boston Museum of Science (01/17/73).
CTSS turned off at MIT IPC (07/20/73).
MIT 6180 Multics connected to ARPANet (host #44) by ABSI.
Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie present Unix paper at 4th ACM SOSP, Yorktown Heights NY.
1974 10 sites
CISL development machine installed.
GM Corporate (GMISCA) installed.
1975 11 sites
RADC, BCO, System M upgraded to 6180s.
USGS benchmark at PMDC.
Bull Gambetta 645 deinstalled.
Honeywell/MIT/USAF Project Guardian begun.
USAF SCOMP project begun.
MR 2.1: iox_, probe, trace, debug, On-line T&D. Enhanced administration & metering, GCOS.
MR 2.2: Secure Mail. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, BASIC, system tools.
University of Southwestern Louisiana (USL) installed.
1976 10 sites
DCC benchmark at PMDC.
MSS 28.0: New storage system.
MR 3.1: AIM, DTSS Simulator, HEALS, 4 FNPs. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, COBOL, ALM, commands.
MR 4.0.1: Reconfiguration & Operator Interfaces.
MR 5.0: 4MW SCUs. Enhanced MCS, COBOL, FORTRAN, MRDS.
1977 14 sites
Bell Canada benchmark at PMDC.
Honeywell-MIT collaboration ends.
USGS Menlo Park and Denver installed.
Puerto Rican Highway Authority (PRHA) installed.
Industrial Nucleonics installed.
Joe Osanna passed away.
Apple Computer founded (01/03/77).
1978 18 sites
Ford installed again.
University of Grenoble installed.
University of Calgary (UC) installed.
MR 6.5: Video Terminals, DN6670, IBM 3780, 4 FNPs, run units, resource reservation, remote station TTFs. Enhanced communication, FORTRAN optimizer.
Palyn Report presented to Honeywell management.
MR 6.5a: remote station TTFs. Enhanced G115 protocol.
Oakland University (OU) installed.
1979 25 sites
EOP benchmark at PMDC.
ASEA, INRA, Renault, Bell Canada (Toronto and Dorval) installed.
Unix setuid patent issued (01/16/79).
Honeywell CNO installed (01/22/79).
MR 7.0: GTSS Simulator, TP, MSU0500, Tape Archive, T&D, tape archive, audit facility, T&D subsystem, 32 new terminal types. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, communications, bulk I/O.
MR 7.0a: L6 Concentrator, MTU0610 9 Track tape, Emacs, polled VIP7760. Enhanced APL.
MR 7.0b: Enhanced FIPS COBOL, WORDPRO.
Bristol & Bath (Avon) installed.
1980 36 sites
Stratus formed, many Multicians leave CISL.
NWGS Level 68 development system installed at US Naval War College.
ASU, Dir. Prevision, EPSHOM, INSEE, IRT installed.
MR 8.0: VIP7801/7804, IBM 3270, Process Preservation, MSS0500, ORION support, Bulk Store removed. Enhanced communications, Emacs, GCOS TSS, COBOL, WORDPRO, MRDS, tape interface to PPS.
Site N (Flagship) installed 03/27/80.
MR 8.2: MSU0500/501. Enhanced: T&D, COBOL, PL/I, FORTRAN, BOS.
1981 44 sites
VW (USA) installed in Honeywell space.
US DoD Natinal Computer Security Center (NCSC) created at NSA
IBM PC announced (8/14/81).
St Johns installed.
MR 9.0: DPS 8/70M CPUs, 8 FNPs, Executive Mail, CSU6601, MSP0611/0612, MTP0611. Enhanced BOS, COLTS/MTAR, COBOL, MRDS, WORDPRO.
Shutdown of Virginia Polytechnic Institute system.
1982 51 sites
STC and Canada DND benchmarks at PMDC.
DND Halifax installed (dual L68).
Bull Systeme X installed at Louveciennes (L68/DPS-8).
VW shut down, deal canceled by VW corporate.
MR 9.1: Enhanced: T&D, HASP, Emacs, FORTRAN, Tape.
Honeywell PMDC moved from Camelback to DVCP in Phoenix.
MR 10.0: 4 IOMs, IOM Paged Mode, Dial-out, X.25, Forum, MTU0630. Enhanced HDLC & BSC to 72KB, record stocks, system recovery, forum command.
Cardiff (CJCC) installed.
Formal evaluation of Multics begun at NCSC
1983 63 sites
USGS Menlo Park shut down.
CNO upgraded to 8/70M.
Canadian DND (DDDS) installed.
Orange Book published by NCSC.
CISL moved from Tech Square to Cambridge Center.
MR 10.1: Printers 901/1201, X.25 LAPB, Subsystem Utilities, EURCs 8001/8002/8004. Enhanced Video, tape, mail, MRDS, FNP memory.
Noel Morris passed away.
1984 64 sites
RAE benchmark at PMDC.
USGS Reston, Dir. Prevision, INSEE shut down.
Flower project started, new Multics machine.
MR 10.2: Satellite 6M, LINUS. Enhanced operator interface, crash analysis, EURC, APL, FIPS FORTRAN, GCOS simulator, MRDS, ARPANet, X.25.
ACTC becomes additional development site (2/3/84).
Special for Canada DND: IO reconfiguration.
1985 60 sites
Almost 100 sites (Gintell ACM speech).
ASU, STC, USGS Denver, INRA, Renault, ELF shut down.
DND-H upgraded to triple 8-70M.
Bull System H (Hounslow) installed.
Flower canceled by Honeywell.
Multics development halted by Honeywell.
MR 11.0: B2 security, 32k Cache, FAMIS, Executive Forum, PC Support, Bootload Multics; 2741, 1050, and ARDS support removed. Enhanced IOM reconfiguration, disk interface, video, FORTRAN, BASIC, mail, dump analysis.
B2 Orange Book rating awarded to MR 11.0+ by NCSC (08/29/85).
Black armbands at HLSUA.
Multics Company spin-off (based on Flower) proposed at HLSUA.
Initial study for NOS (Opus) with MOD-400 group.
Multics Company spin-off dismissed by Honeywell.
McDonnell Douglas Transport Aircraft installed.
1986 55 sites
North American Honeywell Bull integrated into Groupe Bull.
CISL closed (5/22/86), Opus team to Honeywell Billerica.
NWGS DPS 8/70(M) installed at US Naval War College. Level 68 moved to SDF, Moorestown NJ, and got SMS workstations.
MR 12.0: BOS eliminated, IMU, FIPS tape & disk, C compiler.
1987 51 sites
Bull Systeme X moved to Rocquencourt.
NWGS TTGL (Dam Neck VA) and TTGP (San Diego) sites installed.
Honeywell System M moved from Camelback to DVCP location in Phoenix.
Bull takes over Honeywell computer division.
Shutdown of CNO system (12/11/87).
1988 48 sites
Shutdown of MIT Multics system (MSS 38.3), hardware sent to McDonnell (01/02/88).
Development transferred to ACTC (Calgary).
Opus canceled by Bull.
Shutdown of AFDSC system T (05/31/88).
Shutdown of Brunel University system.
Project MAC 25th Anniversary celebration at MIT Kresge Auditorium.
MR 12.2: lint and make; TCP/IP support and inter-system mail.
Shutdown of Bristol & Bath (Avon) system (10/10/88).
1989 35 sites
Shutdown of St Johns (SJU) system (09/14/89).
Shutdown of RADC system (09/30/89).
Shutdown of UBCC system.
1990 30 sites
Shutdown of Oakland University system.
Shutdown of ENWGS-SDF system.
Shutdown of University of Southwestern Louisiana (USL) system.
J. C. R. Licklider passed away.
Ted Glaser passed away.
MR 12.4 released.
1991 25 sites
Linux begun by Linus Torvalds.
Shutdown of ABB (formerly Industrial Nucleonics) system.
Shutdown of Cardiff Joint Computing Centre (CJCC) system (03/15/91).
Shutdown of Loughborough University system.
Shutdown of ASEA Brown Boveri system.
World Wide Web available (Tim Berners-Lee, CERN).
1992 20 sites
Shutdown of Bull Systeme X and Honeywell BCO systems.
Shutdown of AFDSC system D (02/28/92).
Shutdown of INRIA system.
Shutdown of AFDSC system M (03/31/92).
Shutdown of last AFDSC machine, system Z (06/30/92).
Shutdown of Site N (Flagship) system.
1993 15 sites
Shutdown of Bell Canada Montreal system.
USENET News group alt.os.multics started by Magnus Olsson.
Shutdown of U of Calgary (UC) system (06/16/93).
Shutdown of DDDS/ORAE (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) system (09/03/93).
Shutdown of Honeywell System M (Phoenix) (11/28/93).
1994 12 sites
Multicians website begun by Tom Van Vleck with much help and advice from Bernie Greenberg.
1995 12 sites
Shutdown of McDonnell Douglas (12/22/95) system.
1996 8 sites
Shutdown of last NWGS system, at US Naval War College.
Corby's Retirement Party at Wellesley College.
1997 6 sites
Shutdown of Ford system (04/25/97).
1998 5 sites
Shutdown of DOCKMASTER system (03/31/98).
DEC acquired by COMPAQ.
Shutdown of GM system (10/20/98).
1999 3 sites
PRHA no longer used?
Project MAC 35th Anniversary at MIT Kresge Auditorium.
DOCKMASTER hardware loaned by National Cryptologic Museum to the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA.
2000 2 sites
Shutdown of CGI system (was Perigon (was ACTC)) (07/07/00).
Shutdown of last site DND-H system (17:08Z 10/30/00).
Andre Bensoussan passed away.
Multics Reunion and Dinner Honoring Corby at MIT Stata Center and Hotel@MIT (organized by Paul Green and Bob Frankston).
Allen Berglund passed away.
John Couleur passed away.
Open Source for Multics is hosted at MIT, provided courtesy of Bull HN.
Dennis Ritchie passed away.
R. H. Morris passed away.
Multics Reunion organized by Paul Green at MIT Architecture Dept.
Vic Vyssotsky passed away.
Project MAC 50th Anniversary celebration at MIT Stata Center.
Harry Reed's Multics simulator booted Multics MR 12.5.
ACSAC 30 Keynote Panel "Multics: Before, During, After". Panelists: Sibert, Schell, Van Vleck, Lipner.
Professor Robert M. Fano passed away at the age of 98.
Release 1.0 of the Multics simulator released, along with Multics MR 12.6f.
Professor Fernando J. Corbató passed away at the age of 93.
Release 2.0 of the Multics simulator available.
Bob Graham passed away.
Multics Release 12.7 for the Multics simulator available.
Release 3.0 of the Multics simulator available.