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Items in italics are non-Multics events included for historical context.

For more historical information, see Multics History. The site timeline is a graphical presentation of Multics site histories.

1944


1944
Whirlwind at MIT: core memory, SAGE.

1957


1957
Sputnik I.

1956


1956
GE established a computer dept in Phoenix for the BoA ERMA project.

1957


1957
MIT Computation Center running IBM 704.

1958


1958
US DoD ARPA established; MIT President J R Killian Presidential Science Advisor.

1959


1959
Prof. John McCarthy proposes time-sharing in memo to Prof. Philip M. Morse, director of the MIT Computation Center.

1961


1961
Burroughs B5000 (Algol, dual CPUs, segmentation).

11/61
MIT Computation Center running IBM 709. Corby's team demonstrated 4-user tape CTSS.

1962


1962
MIT Computation Center running IBM 7090, Spring 62.

05/62
Paper on CTSS presented at 1962 Spring Joint Computer Conference.

08/62
MIT Computation Center upgraded to IBM 7090. CTSS running on new hardware.

08/62
First Paper on Internet Concept by J. C. R. Licklider & Welden Clark, "On-Line Man Computer Communication".

09/62

10/62
Cuban Missile Crisis showed that US military systems needed improvement. ARPA IPTO established.

11/62
MIT Project MAC suggested by J. C. R. Licklider, IPTO director.

12/62
Ferranti Atlas (paging) (12/7/62).

1963


1963
GE announces 600 line.

01/63
Project MAC proposal submitted to ARPA by MIT Prof. R.M. Fano.

03/63
Project MAC authorized & funded by ARPA IPTO. ($3 million contract).

04/63
MIT Computation Center 7090 with second 32K memory, 1302 disk, 7750.

05/63
Corby demo of CTSS on WGBH.

05/63
Initial JOSS service on JOHNNIAC at RAND.

06/63
Time-Sharing running at SDC on (IBM) AN/FSQ-32 (funded by ARPA).

07/63
Project MAC summer study, using CTSS on Computation Center IBM 7090, attended by many computer scientists.

09/63
Project to build a time-sharing system at Dartmouth begun by John Kemeny and Tom Kurtz.

10/63
Project MAC IBM 7090 (red machine) installed running CTSS, later upgraded to IBM 7094 II.

1964


1964
GE 635 group moves to Phoenix from Syracuse.

         
GE buys Machines Bull.

04/64
IBM announces System/360 (4/7/64).

05/64
DTSS brought up at Dartmouth on a GE-225/DATANET-30. (05/01/64, 4AM).

06/64
Corby's computer systems research group moved to Project MAC 5th floor 545 Tech Square.

08/64
General Electric selected as supplier for MAC GE-645 research machine, contract signed.

11/64
Bell Labs joins Multics project with MIT and GE.

1965


1965
First inter-computer communication, between TX-2 and Q-32 (Marill and Roberts).

         
NSA RYE time-sharing system on Univac 494: provided multilevel security.

04/65
First shipments of GE 635.

08/65
GE 635 delivered to Project MAC, 6.36 simulator running.

08/65
IBM announces TSS/360.

08/65
CTSS MAIL command available to users.

11/65
MIT Computation Center bringing up CTSS on blue machine.

11/65
Special Multics session at Fall Joint Computer Conference, 6 papers presented.

1966


1966
GE Cambridge Information Systems Laboratory (CISL) opened in 545 Tech Square.

06/66
Flag Day (06/14/66).

1967 3 sites


1967
WYLBUR and ORVYL developed at Stanford on 360/67.

         
EPL compiler developed by Doug McIlroy and Bob Morris at BTL after Digitek failed to produce.

01/67
GE 645 delivered to Project MAC and BTL. (Segmentation and paging.)

01/67
CP-40/CMS running at IBM Scientific Center on 360/40.

03/67
GE 635 removed from Project MAC.

03/67
milestone phase .5 (file system on 645 simulator).

04/67
CP/CMS in service on 360/67 at Lincoln Labs.

05/67
MTS in service on 360/67 at Michigan.

05/67
TENEX begun at BBN.

10/67
Release 1 of TSS/360 on 360/67.

12/67
milestone phase 1 (single process boot on 645). (Noel Morris, Tom Van Vleck)

1968 3 sites


1968
GE Large Systems Department moves to Phoenix from Syracuse.

03/68
milestone A3 - 3 processes (Bob Rappaport).

04/68
IBM decommits TSS/360.

05/68
IBM releases CP/67 version 1 to 8 sites.

07/68
First Multics picnic in Groton MA.

08/68
RADC GE-645 installed.

10/68
Demonstrable Initial Multics milestone (8 users).

12/68
Multics self-hosting, console sessions in Tech Square.

12/68
moved MAC 7094 to MIT IPC, building 39.

1969 3 sites


01/69

01/69
Limited Initial Multics milestone (12 users).

01/69
Integrated mini-GIM & TTY DIM into system.

04/69
Bell Labs drops out of Multics development.

04/69
Unix begun on PDP-7 at Bell Labs.

04/69
IBM un-decommits TSS/360.

05/69
file system 2.0.

06/69
milestone 3.0.10.

07/69
Experimental MIT use of Multics (Cambridge Project).

10/69
MSS 4.0 - Multics public at MIT: new PL1 compiler, new traffic control.

10/69
First ARPANet connection UCLA-SRI (10/29/69).

12/69
MSS 5.0 - Support for DSU270 (10 MB disk).

1970 3 sites


1970
GE CISL moved to 575 Tech Square.

03/70
MSS 6.0 - Revised command loop MSS 7.0 - page control rewrite.

03/70
DEC announces PDP-11 (3/28/70).

05/70
First Multics talk at GESHUA XI in Seattle (Van Vleck).

06/70
MSS 8.0 - pre-paging and post-purging.

06/70
TENEX on the air (6/15/70).

08/70

08/70
Multics installed on RADC machine.

10/70
MSS 10.0 - new ttydim.

10/70
Honeywell buys GE computer division: the "merger".

11/70
MSS 11.0 - new init.

12/70
MSS 12.0 - Support for DSU170s.

12/70
MSS 13.0 - Associative Memory fix.

12/70
Unix ported to PDP-11 at Bell Labs.

1971 4 sites


1971
Software Factory for Level 64 installed on BCO 645.

01/71
MSS 14.0 - Moved processes from ring 32 to ring 4.

01/71
Multics Symposium at MIT Jan 21-22.

04/71
MSS 15.0 - retrofit.

04/71
DTSS simulator using Dartmouth BASIC added to Multics.

05/71
IBM decommits TSS/360 again.

09/71
MIT 645 Multics providing service on ARPANet (host #6) via GIMPSPIF.(RFC 0252).

09/71
RCA sells its computer division to Univac.

1972 6 sites


1972
Paris 645 installed at Bull on Av. Gambetta for Level 64.

         

10/72
Anderson Report published, led by Roger Schell.

11/72
System M "6090" (early 6180) installed.

11/72
MIT H6180 delivered.

12/72
MSS 18.0. - ACL redo: CACLs eliminated.

1973 7 sites


1973

01/73
Multics and H6180 announced by Honeywell at Boston Museum of Science (01/17/73).

07/73
CTSS turned off at MIT IPC (07/20/73).

11/73
AFDSC installed.

12/73
MIT 6180 Multics connected to ARPANet (host #44) by ABSI.

12/73
Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie present Unix paper at 4th ACM SOSP, Yorktown Heights NY.

1974 10 sites


1974
CISL development machine installed.

01/74
MSS 22.0.

01/74
Ford installed.

05/74
GM Corporate (GMISCA) installed.

06/74
MR 1.0: First standard release. Compilers support EIS, BASIC, GCOS Simulator, DSS191. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN.

1975 11 sites


1975
RADC, BCO, System M upgraded to 6180s.

         

         
Bull Gambetta 645 deinstalled.

         
Honeywell/MIT/USAF Project Guardian begun.

         
USAF SCOMP project begun.

01/75
MR 2.0: CPU cache, NPS, 1600bpi tape, TN1200. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, tape.

03/75
MR 2.1: iox_, probe, trace, debug, On-line T&D. Enhanced administration & metering, GCOS.

06/75
MR 2.2: Secure Mail. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, BASIC, system tools.

09/75
MR 3.0: MCS, Scheduler, RCP, COBOL-74, SORT. Enhanced GCOS.

1975
Ford deinstalled.

07/75

1976 10 sites


1976
DCC benchmark at PMDC.

         
DCC, USGS Reston installed.

02/76

03/76
MR 3.1: AIM, DTSS Simulator, HEALS, 4 FNPs. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, COBOL, ALM, commands.

07/76
MR 4.0: New storage system, MRDS, MSU0451, MERGE, 16MB SCUs. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, SORT, Graphics system, mail.

09/76
MR 4.0.1: Reconfiguration & Operator Interfaces.

12/76
MR 5.0: 4MW SCUs. Enhanced MCS, COBOL, FORTRAN, MRDS.

1977 14 sites


1977

         
Honeywell-MIT collaboration ends.

         
USGS Menlo Park and Denver installed.

         

         

         
Joe Osanna passed away.

01/77
Apple Computer founded (01/03/77).

10/77
MR 6.0: tape, ESD, salvager, RJE, WORDPRO, 7 CPUs, multiple tape controllers. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, COBOL, MRDS, reliability & damage recovery.

1978 18 sites


1978

         
Ford installed again.

         
INRIA/Rocquencourt installed.

         
University of Grenoble installed.

         
VPI installed.

         
University of Calgary (UC) installed.

03/78
MR 6.1.

09/78
MR 6.5: Video Terminals, DN6670, IBM 3780, 4 FNPs, run units, resource reservation, remote station TTFs. Enhanced communication, FORTRAN optimizer.

11/78
Palyn Report presented to Honeywell management.

12/78
MR 6.5a: remote station TTFs. Enhanced G115 protocol.

12/78

1979 25 sites


1979
EOP benchmark at PMDC.

         
ASEA, INRA, Renault, Bell Canada (Toronto and Dorval) installed.

01/79
Unix setuid patent issued (01/16/79).

01/79
Honeywell CNO installed (01/22/79).

03/79
MR 7.0: GTSS Simulator, TP, MSU0500, Tape Archive, T&D, tape archive, audit facility, T&D subsystem, 32 new terminal types. Enhanced PL/I, FORTRAN, communications, bulk I/O.

06/79
MR 7.0a: L6 Concentrator, MTU0610 9 Track tape, Emacs, polled VIP7760. Enhanced APL.

09/79
MR 7.0b: Enhanced FIPS COBOL, WORDPRO.

09/79
Bristol & Bath (Avon) installed.

1980 36 sites


1980
Stratus formed, many Multicians leave CISL.

         
NWGS Level 68 development system installed at US Naval War College.

         
ASU, Dir. Prevision, EPSHOM, INSEE, IRT installed.

03/80
MR 8.0: VIP7801/7804, IBM 3270, Process Preservation, MSS0500, ORION support, Bulk Store removed. Enhanced communications, Emacs, GCOS TSS, COBOL, WORDPRO, MRDS, tape interface to PPS.

03/80
Site N (Flagship) installed 03/27/80.

12/80
MR 8.2: MSU0500/501. Enhanced: T&D, COBOL, PL/I, FORTRAN, BOS.

1981 44 sites


1981
VW (USA) installed in Honeywell space.

         
INSEE/Paris, CERAM, CICB, Culture, CICT, INRIA/Sophia installed.

01/81
US DoD Computer Security Center created

08/81
IBM PC announced (8/14/81).

09/81
St Johns installed.

10/81
MR 9.0: DPS 8/70M CPUs, 8 FNPs, Executive Mail, CSU6601, MSP0611/0612, MTP0611. Enhanced BOS, COLTS/MTAR, COBOL, MRDS, WORDPRO.

12/81

1982 51 sites


1982

         
DND Halifax installed (dual L68).

         
Bull Systeme X installed at Louveciennes (L68/DPS-8).

         
CIRIL, CNET, INRIA/Rennes, Mainz, HLR, SCSI installed.

         
VW shut down, deal canceled by VW corporate.

03/82
MR 9.1: Enhanced: T&D, HASP, Emacs, FORTRAN, Tape.

06/82
STC installed.

07/82
Honeywell PMDC moved from Camelback to DVCP in Phoenix.

10/82
MR 10.0: 4 IOMs, IOM Paged Mode, Dial-out, X.25, Forum, MTU0630. Enhanced HDLC & BSC to 72KB, record stocks, system recovery, forum command.

11/82
Cardiff (CJCC) installed.

12/82
Formal evaluation of Multics begun at NCSC

1983 63 sites


1983
SNECMA, CICRP, INNPPP, Credit Lyonnais, SOZAWE, ONERA/CERT, ELF, LUT, Brunel, INPPP installed.

         
USGS Menlo Park shut down.

01/83
CNO upgraded to 8/70M.

03/83
UBCC installed.

04/83
CCVR installed.

06/83
Canadian DND (DDDS) installed.

08/83
Orange Book published by NCSC.

09/83
CISL moved from Tech Square to Cambridge Center.

10/83
MR 10.1: Printers 901/1201, X.25 LAPB, Subsystem Utilities, EURCs 8001/8002/8004. Enhanced Video, tape, mail, MRDS, FNP memory.

10/83
ACTC installed.

10/83
DOCKMASTER installed.

10/83
Noel Morris passed away.

1984 64 sites


1984
RAE benchmark at PMDC.

         
USGS Reston, Dir. Prevision, INSEE shut down.

         
Flower project started, new Multics machine.

01/84
MR 10.2: Satellite 6M, LINUS. Enhanced operator interface, crash analysis, EURC, APL, FIPS FORTRAN, GCOS simulator, MRDS, ARPANet, X.25.

02/84
ACTC becomes additional development site (2/3/84).

06/84
Special for Canada DND: IO reconfiguration.

1985 60 sites


1985
Almost 100 sites (Gintell ACM speech).

         
ASU, STC, USGS Denver, INRA, Renault, ELF shut down.

         
ONERA/Paris installed.

         
DND-H upgraded to triple 8-70M.

         
Bull System H (Hounslow) installed.

02/85
Flower canceled by Honeywell.

06/85

06/85
MR 11.0: B2 security, 32k Cache, FAMIS, Executive Forum, PC Support, Bootload Multics; 2741, 1050, and ARDS support removed. Enhanced IOM reconfiguration, disk interface, video, FORTRAN, BASIC, mail, dump analysis.

08/85
B2 Orange Book rating awarded to MR 11.0+ by NCSC (08/29/85).

10/85
Black armbands at HLSUA.

10/85
Multics Company spin-off (based on Flower) proposed at HLSUA.

10/85
Initial study for NOS (Opus) with MOD-400 group.

11/85
Multics Company spin-off dismissed by Honeywell.

12/85

1986 55 sites


1986
EPSHOM, IRT, CERAM, INRIA/Sophia, Mainz, Credit Lyonnais shut down.

         
SEP installed.

         
North American Honeywell Bull integrated into Groupe Bull.

01/86
Opus (NOS/VS3) IPR-0 review at Honeywell.

05/86
CISL closed (5/22/86), Opus team to Honeywell Billerica.

07/86
NWGS DPS 8/70(M) installed at US Naval War College. Level 68 moved to SDF, Moorestown NJ, and got SMS workstations.

12/86
MR 12.0: BOS eliminated, IMU, FIPS tape & disk, C compiler.

1987 51 sites


1987
Shutdown of SNECMA, CICT.

         
Bull Systeme X moved to Rocquencourt.

         
NWGS TTGL (Dam Neck VA) and TTGP (San Diego) sites installed.

         
Honeywell System M moved from Camelback to DVCP location in Phoenix.

11/87
Bull takes over Honeywell computer division.

12/87
Shutdown of CNO (12/11/87).

1988 48 sites


1988
Shutdown of INRIA/Rennes, CICB, Culture, CIRIL, CNET, INNPPP, ONERA, INPPP, SOZAWE.

01/88
Shutdown of MIT Multics (MSS 38.3), hardware to McDonnell (01/02/88).

04/88
Development transferred to ACTC (Calgary).

04/88
Opus canceled by Bull.

05/88
Shutdown of AFDSC system T (05/31/88).

07/88
Shutdown of Brunel University.

09/88
Shutdown of CICRP, Grenoble, Rennes.

10/88
Project MAC 25th Anniversary celebration at MIT Kresge Auditorium.

11/88
MR 12.2: lint and make; TCP/IP support and inter-system mail.

10/88
Shutdown of Bristol & Bath (Avon) (10/10/88).

1989 35 sites


09/89
Shutdown of St Johns (SJU) (09/14/89).

09/89
Shutdown of RADC (09/30/89).

09/89
Shutdown of UBCC.

12/89

1990 30 sites


1990

         
Bell Canada Toronto, CCVR, SEP shut down.

01/90
Shutdown of ENWGS-SDF.

05/90

06/90
J. C. R. Licklider passed away.

10/90
Ted Glaser passed away.

12/90
MR 12.4 released.

1991 25 sites


1991
Linux begun by Linus Torvalds.

         
Shutdown of ABB (formerly Industrial Nucleonics).

03/91
Shutdown of Cardiff Joint Computing Centre (CJCC) (03/15/91).

07/91

07/91
Shutdown of ASEA Brown Boveri.

08/91
World Wide Web available (Tim Berners-Lee, CERN).

1992 20 sites


1992
Shutdown of Bull Systeme X and Honeywell BCO.

02/92
Shutdown of AFDSC system D (02/28/92).

03/92
Shutdown of INRIA.

03/92
Shutdown of AFDSC system M (03/31/92).

06/92
Shutdown of last AFDSC machine, system Z (06/30/92).

09/92
Shutdown of Site N (Flagship).

11/92

1993 15 sites


1993
Shutdown of Bell Canada Montreal.

04/93
News group alt.os.multics started by Magnus Olsson.

06/93
Shutdown of U of Calgary (UC) (06/16/93).

09/93
Shutdown of DDDS/ORAE (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) (09/03/93).

11/93
Shutdown of Honeywell System M (Phoenix) (11/28/93).

1994 12 sites


1994
Multicians website begun by Tom Van Vleck with much help and advice from Bernie Greenberg.

1995 12 sites


12/95
Shutdown of McDonnell Douglas (12/22/95).

1996 8 sites


04/96
Shutdown of last NWGS system, at US Naval War College.

11/96
Corby's Retirement Party at Wellesley College.

1997 6 sites


04/97
Shutdown of Ford (04/25/97).

1998 5 sites


03/98
Shutdown of DOCKMASTER (03/31/98).

06/98
DEC acquired by COMPAQ.

10/98
Shutdown of GM (10/20/98).

1999 3 sites


1999
PRHA no longer used?

04/99
Project MAC 35th Anniversary at MIT Kresge Auditorium.

06/99
DOCKMASTER hardware loaned by National Cryptologic Museum to the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA.

2000 2 sites


07/00
Shutdown of CGI (was Perigon (was ACTC)) (07/07/00).

10/00
Shutdown of DND-H (17:08Z 10/30/00).

2003


10/03
Andre Bensoussan passed away.

2004


04/04
Multics Reunion and Dinner Honoring Corby at MIT Stata Center and Hotel@MIT (organized by Paul Green and Bob Frankston).

2006


09/06
Allen Berglund passed away.

2007


08/07
John Couleur passed away.

11/07
Open Source for Multics is hosted at MIT, provided courtesy of Bull HN.

2011


10/11
Dennis Ritchie passed away.

10/11
R. H. Morris passed away.

2012


06/12
Multics Reunion organized by Paul Green at MIT Architecture Dept.

09/12
Vic Vyssotsky passed away.

2014


05/14
Project MAC 50th Anniversary celebration at MIT Stata Center.

11/14

12/14

2016


07/16
Professor Robert M. Fano passed away at the age of 98.

2017


06/17
Release 1.0 of the Multics simulator released, along with Multics MR 12.6f.

2019


07/19
Professor Fernando J. Corbató passed away at the age of 93.

09/19
Release 2.0 of the Multics simulator available.

2020


01/20
Bob Graham passed away.

2021


07/21
Multics Release 12.7 for the Multics simulator available.